Zoogeography of fresh water. Volume 3

Автор(ы):Banarescu P.
28.12.2013
Год изд.:1993
Описание: With the exception of its northwestern comer (or, for terrestrial animals, the entire subtropical area north of the Sahara) which is inhabited by a fauna with European affinities, Africa represents a distinct and well delimited zoogeographi-cal entity, usually recorded in the literature as the “Ethiopian region”. However, most phytogeographers lump together tropical Africa with southern Asia as an Indo-African region or realm, considering South Africa as a distinct phytogeo-graphical realm - “Regnum Capense”. Students of terrestrial animals also include the Arabian Peninsula within the Ethiopian Region; in the author’s opinion, the poor freshwater fauna of this peninsula has prevailing western Asian affinities, although it also includes some true African lineages.
Оглавление:
Zoogeography of fresh water. Volume 3 — обложка книги.
18 Africa (The Ethiopian region) [1103]
  18.1 Composition of the fauna [1103]
    18.1.1 Primary freshwater fishes [1103]
    18.1.2 Primary freshwater higher Crustacea [1109]
    18.1.3 Primary freshwater Mollusca [1110]
    18.1.4 Primary freshwater free-living lower Invertebrata [1118]
    18.1.5 Secondary division freshwater fishes [1119]
    18.1.6 Freshwater crabs [1120]
    18.1.7 Peripheral freshwater fishes [1121]
    18.1.8 Peripheral freshwater Invertebrata [1122]
    18.1.9 Crustacean parasites on freshwater fishes [1127]
    18.1.10 Entomostraca inhabiting mainly temporary pools [1127]
    18.1.11 Aquatic insects and water mites [1128]
  18.2 Regional distribution of the African freshwater fauna [1131]
    18.2.1 General distribution pattern [1131]
    18.2.2 The Zaire (Congo) river basin [1135]
    18.2.3 The Nile river basin [1137]
    18.2.4 Western Africa north of the Zaire river basin [1139]
      18.2.4.1 Drainages of the Nilo-Sudan province [1139]
      18.2.4.2 The Upper and Lower Guinea provinces [1140]
    18.2.5 The Zambesi, Lake Ngami and Limpopo basins [1143]
    18.2.6 Eastern Africa [1145]
      18.2.6.1 The Ethiopian highlands [1145]
      18.2.6.2 The rivers of Somalia and northern Kenya [1145]
      18.2.6.3 The rivers of southern Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique [1146]
    18.2.7 Quanza River, Angola [1146]
    18.2.8 Southern Africa (Cape Province) [1147]
    18.2.9 The Great Lakes [1149]
      18.2.9.1 Lake Victoria [1149]
      18.2.9.2 Lake Tanganyika [1150]
      18.2.9.3 Lake Malawi (Nyassa) [1152]
  18.3 Biogeographical relationships and history of the African freshwater fauna [1153]
    18.3.1 Relations with other faunas [1153]
    18.3.2 Relations between the African freswater faunas [1156]
    18.3.3 Disjunctions in the African freshwater fauna [1157]
    18.3.4 Vicariant relationships within the Ethiopian freshwater fauna [1158]
    18.3.5 The fossil record [1160]
    18.3.6 Probable history of the freshwater fauna [1162]
19 Madagascar and satellite islands [1171]
  19.1 Composition of the freshwater fauna [1171]
    19.1.1 Primary freshwater animals [1171]
    19.1.2 Secondary and peripheral freshwater animals [1172]
    19.1.3 Aquatic insects and water mites [1174]
  19.2 Relationships and history of the Malagasy freshwater fauna [1175]
20 South America [1179]
  20.1 Composition of the fauna [1179]
    20.1.1 Primary freshwater fishes [1179]
    20.1.2 Primary freshwater higher Crustacea [1181]
    20.1.3 Continental freshwater Mollusca [1183]
    20.1.4 Primary freshwater lower Invertebrata [1187]
    20.1.5 Secondary division freshwater fishes and crabs [1189]
    20.1.6 Peripheral freshwater fishes [1191]
    20.1.7 Peripheral freshwater In vertebrata [1195]
    20.1.8 Entomostraca with passive dispersal means [1197]
    20.1.9 Aquatic insects and water mites [1200]
  20.2 Regional distribution of the riverine-net fauna [1206]
    20.2.1 The tropical South American fauna [1207]
      20.2.1.1 General distribution pattern [1207]
      20.2.1.2 The Amazon basin [1215]
      20.2.1.3 The Guianas [1220]
      20.2.1.4 Rio Orinoco [1222]
      20.2.1.5 Rio Parana basin [1223]
      20.2.1.6 East and southeastern Brazil [1226]
      20.2.1.7 Rio Magdalena [1227]
      20.2.1.8 The Pacific slope of tropical South America [1230]
      20.2.1.9 Lake Titicaca and the Altiplano [1233]
    20.2.2 Temperate and cold South America [1235]
  20.3 Regional distribution of Entomostraca with passive dispersal means [1237]
  20.4 Regional distribution of aquatic insects and of water mites [1238]
  20.5 Biogeographical relationships and history of the freshwater fauna [1245]
    20.5.1 Relations with other faunas [1245]
    20.5.2 Interrelationship in the freshwater fauna [1247]
    20.5.3 Disjunctions in the freshwater fauna [1248]
    20.5.4 Vicariant relationships in the South American freshwater fauna and sympatry of close relatives [1249]
    20.5.5 Palaeogeography of South America and probable origin and history of its freshwater fauna [1252]
21 The Central American/Caribbean intermediary areas [1256]
  21.1 Composition of the freshwater fauna [1256]
    21.1.1 Primary freshwater fishes of Central America [1256]
    21.1.2 Primary freshwater In vertebrata of Central America [1258]
    21.1.3 Presumed primary freshwater animals of the Antilles [1259]
    21.1.4 Secondary division freshwater fishes [1260]
    21.1.5 Freshwater crabs [1263]
    21.1.6 Нуpogean, presumed Tethyan lineages of higher Crustacea [1264]
    21.1.7 Other peripheral freshwater animals [1267]
    21.1.8 Freshwater insects [1269]
    21.1.9 Hypogean water mites [1272]
  21.2 Regional distribution of the freshwater fauna in Central America [1273]
  21.3 Affinities and probable history of the freshwater fauna of Central America and the Antilles [1276]
22 The Australian region [1284]
  22.1 Composition of the fauna [1284]
    22.1.1 Primary division freshwater fishes [1284]
    22.1.2 Primary freshwater higher Crustacea [1285]
    22.1.3 Continental freshwater Mollusca [1287]
    22.1.4 Primary freshwater lower invertebrates [1292]
    22.1.5 Peripheral freshwater fishes [1293]
    22.1.6 Secondary and peripheral freshwater invertebrates [1305]
    22.1.7 Entomostraca with passive dispersal means [1310]
    22.1.8 Aquatic insects and water mites [1313]
  22.2 Regional distribution of the riverine-net fauna [1321]
    22.2.1 General distribution pattern [1321]
    22.2.2 The Leichhardtian district [1323]
    22.2.3 The Riechian district [1325]
    22.2.4 The Gaimardian district [1327]
    22.2.5 The Jardinian district [1327]
    22.2.6 The Krefftian district [1328]
    22.2.7 The Sturtian district [1329]
    22.2.8 The Mitchellian district [1330]
    22.2.9 The Lessonian district [1331]
    22.2.10 The Petterdinian district [1332]
    22.2.11 The Tobinian district [1334]
    22.2.12 The Vlaminghian district [1335]
    22.2.13 The Greyian district [1336]
  22.3 Regional distribution of the aquatic insects [1337]
  22.4 Biogeographical relationships and history of the freshwater fauna of Australia and New Guinea [1340]
    22.4.1 Affinities with other faunas [1340]
    22.4.2 Relations between the Australian freshwater faunas [1344]
    22.4.3 Disjunctions in the Australian freshwater fauna [1346]
    22.4.4 Vicariant relationships within the Australian freshwater fauna [1347]
    22.4.5 History of the Australian freshwater fauna [1349]
23 New Zealand [1355]
  23.1 Composition of the freshwater fauna [1355]
    23.1.1 Primary freshwater animals [1355]
    23.1.2 Peripheral freshwater animals [1357]
    23.1.3 Aquatic insects and water mites [1359]
  23.2 Biogeographical relationships and history of the freshwater fauna [1363]
    23.2.1 Affinities with other faunas [1363]
    23.2.2 History of the aquatic fauna [1364]
24 The Indo- West Pacific and circum-Antarctic peripheral areas [1367]
  24.1 The Indo-West Pacific peripheral areas [1367]
    24.1.1 General faunistic characterization [1367]
    24.1.2 The islands of eastern Indonesia (except Sulawesi) [1371]
    24.1.3 Sulawesi (= Celebes) Island [1372]
    24.1.4 The northern Philippines [1374]
    24.1.5 The Bismarck Archipelago and Solomon Islands [1375]
    24.1.6 The Pacific islands [1376]
    24.1.7 Origin of the Indo-West Pacific freshwater fauna and significance of Wallace’s and Lydekker’s Lines [1379]
  24.2 New Caledonia [1383]
  24.3 The circum-Antarctic peripheral areas [1386]
25 General conclusions about the distribution and dispersal history of freshwater animals [1388]
  25.1 Distinction between old continental lineages and lineages of marine origin in fresh waters [1388]
  25.2 Pangaean origin of many freshwater lineages [1391]
  25.3 Divergent evolution in the fragments of Pangaea [1392]
  25.4 Later contacts between former fragments of Gondwanaland and northern continents and their consequences [1395]
  25.5 Two alternative hypotheses for explaining the origin of the recent freshwater faunas [1397]
    25.5.1 The expanding earth hypothesis [1397]
    25.5.2 The presumed northern origin of most lineages and their gradual southward spread [1400]
  25.6 Problems of dispersal across salt water and terrestrial barriers [1403]
  25.7 Continuous modifications of the riverine net favouring dispersal by continental freshwater routes [1405]
  25.8 Continuous colonization of inland waters by marine intruders [1406]
  25.9 Main ecological factors influencing the distribution of freshwater animals [1407]
    25.9.1 Climate, cold-adapted and warm-adapted lineages [1407]
    25.9.2 Size of the area [1409]
    25.9.3 Degree of rheophily and possibility of using river captures [1410]
  25.10 Effects of competition [1411]
    25.10.1 Competition between continental lineages [1411]
    25.10.2 Competition between lineages of continental and of marine origin [1414]
    25.10.3 Differential extinction and differential survival in various areas [1416]
  25.11 Distinct dispersal histories leading to indentical type of distribution [1419]
  25.12 Significance of the different geological periods [1420]
  25.13 Significance of the riverine and of the old lacustrine faunas [1422]
  25.14 Some biogeographical considerations on the hypogean freshwater animals [1424]
Additional Comments [1426]
Addenda and Corrigenda [1432]
References [1449]
Index of scientific and common names [1519]
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