Biochemistry of Signal Transduktion and Regulation

Автор(ы):Krauss Gerhard
06.10.2007
Год изд.:2001
Издание:2
Описание: This book is based on lectures on regulation and signal transduction that are offered to students of biochemistry, biology and chemistry at the University of Bayreuth. It is the aim of the present book to describe the structural and biochemical properties of signaling molecules and their regulation, the interaction of signaling proteins at the various levels of signal transduction and to work out the basic principles of cellular communication. As far as possible molecular aspects have been included. Starting from regulation at the level of genes and of enzymes the book concentrates on the major intracellular signaling molecules and signaling pathways and then describes the interplay and cooperation of various signaling pathways in central cellular processes like cell cycle regulation, tumorigensis and apoptosis.
Оглавление:
Biochemistry of Signal Transduktion and Regulation — обложка книги.
Chapter 1
  The Regulation of Gene Expression [1]
Chapter 2
  The Regulation of Enzyme Activity [89]
Chapter 3
  Function and Structure of Signaling Pathways [119]
Chapter 4
  Signaling by Nuclear Receptors [148]
Chapter 5
  G-protein Coupled Signal Transmission Pathways [173]
Chapter 6
  Intracellular Messenger Substances: "Second Messengers" [216]
Chapter 7
  Ser/Thr-specific Protein Kinases and Protein Phosphatases [247]
Chapter 8
  Signal Transmission via Transmembrane Receptors with Tyrosine-specific Protein Kinase Activity [286]
Chapter 9
  Signal Transmission via Ras Proteins [324]
Chapter 10
  Intracellular Signal Transduction: the Protein Cascades of the MAP Kinase Pathways [350]
Chapter 11
  Membrane Receptors with Associated Tyrosine Kinase Activity [358]
Chapter 12
  Other Receptor Classes [377]
Chapter 13
  Regulation of the Cell Cycle [385]
Chapter 14
  Malfunction of Signaling Pathways and Tumorigenesis: Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes [420]
Chapter 15
  Apoptosis [455]
Chapter 16
  Ion Channels and Signal Transduction [473]
Subject Index [495]

Chapter 1 The Regulation of Gene Expression
  1.1 Regulation of Gene Expression: How and Where? A Schematic Overview [1]
  1.2 Protein-Nucleic Acid Interactions as a Basis for Specific Gene Regulation [3]
    1.2.1 Structural Motifs of DNA-Binding Proteins [4]
      1.2.1.1 Helix-Turn-Helix Motif [5]
      1.2.1.2 Binding Motifs with Zinc Ions [6]
      1.2.1.3 Basic Leucine Zipper and Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs [10]
      1.2.1.4 DNA-binding via b-Sheet Structures [12]
      1.2.1.5 Flexible Structures in DNA-binding Proteins [12]
    1.2.2 The Nature of the specific Interactions in Protein-Nucleic Acid Complexes [13]
      1.2.2.1 H-bonds in Protein-Nucleic Acid Complexes [13]
      1.2.2.2 Ionic Interactions [16]
      1.2.2.3 Van der Waals Contacts [ 16]
    1.2.3 The Role of the DNA Conformation in Protein-DNA Interactions [17]
      1.2.3.1 Local Conformational Changes of DNA [17]
      1.2.3.2 Bending of DNA [18]
    1.2.4 Structure of the Recognition Sequence and Quarternary Structure of DNA-binding Proteins [21]
  1.3 The Principles of Transcription Regulation [24]
    1.3.1 General Mechanism [24]
      1.3.1.1 Elements of Transcription Regulation [24]
      1.3.1.2 Negative Regulation of Transcription [25]
      1.3.1.3 Positive Regulation of Transcription [25]
      1.3.1.4 Functional Requirements for Repressors and Transcriptional activators [26]
    1.3.2 Mechanisms for the Control of the Activity of DNA-binding Proteins [27]
      1.3.2.1 Binding of Effector Molecules [27]
      1.3.2.2 Metal Ions as Effector Molecules [30]
      1.3.2.3 Binding of Inhibitory Proteins [31]
      1.3.2.4 Modification of Regulatory Proteins [31]
      1.3.2.5 Changes in the Concentration of Regulatory DNA-binding Proteins [34]
  1.4 Regulation of Transcription [35]
    1.4.1 Overview of Transcription Initiation in Procaryotes [35]
      1.4.1.2 s70-Dependent Transcription [36]
      1.4.1.3 s54-dependent Promoters [38]
    1.4.2 Structure of the Eucaryotic Transcription Apparatus [39]
      1.4.2.1 Structure of the Transcription Start Site and Regulatory Sequences [40]
      1.4.2.2 Elementary Steps of Eucaryotic Transcription [41]
      1.4.2.3 Formation of a Basal Transcription Apparatus from General Initiation Factors and RNA Polymerase [42]
      1.4.2.4 Phosphorylation of RNA Polymerase II and the Onset of Transcription [45]
      1.4.2.5 TFIIH-A Pivotal Regulatory Protein Complex? [46]
    1.4.3 Regulation of Eucaryotic Transcription by DNA-binding Proteins [47]
      1.4.3.1 The Structure of Eucaryotic Transcriptional activators [47]
      1.4.3.2 Concerted Action of Transcriptional activators and Coactivators in the Regulation of Transcription [49]
      1.4.3.3 Interactions with the Transcription Apparatus [52]
    1.4.4 Regulation of the Activity of Transcriptional activators [53]
      1.4.4.1 The Principal Pathways for the Regulation of Transcriptional activators [53]
      1.4.4.2 Phosphorylation of Transcriptional activators [54]
      1.4.4.3 Heterotypic Dimerization [58]
      1.4.4.4 Regulation by Binding of Effector Molecules [59]
    1.4.5 Specific Repression of Transcription [60]
    1.4.6 Chromatin Structure and Transcription Activation [62]
      1.4.6.1 Transcriptional Activity and Histone Acetylation [64]
    1.4.7 Methylation of DNA [66]
  1.5 Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Gene Expression [68]
    1.5.1 Modifications at the 5'- and З'-Ends of the Pre-mRNA [69]
    1.5.2 Formation of Alternative mRNA by Alternative Polyadenylation [70]
    1.5.3 Alternative Splicing [71]
    1.5.4 Regulation via Transport and Splicing of pre-mRNA [73]
    1.5.5 Stability of the mRNA [76]
    1.5.6 Regulation at the Level of Translation [79]
      1.5.6.1 Regulation by Binding of Protein to the 5'-End of the mRNA [79]
      1.5.6.2 Regulation by Modification of Initiation Factors [80]
      1.5.6.3 Regulation of Translation via Insulin [83]
Chapter 2 The Regulation of Enzyme Activity
  2.1 Enzymes as Catalysts [89]
  2.2 Regulation of Enzymes by Effector Molecules [90]
  2.3 Mechanistic Descriptions of Allosteric Regulation [92]
  2.4 Structural Basis of Allosteric Regulation on the Example of Phosphofructokinase [94]
  2.5 Regulation of Enzyme Activity by Binding of Inhibitor and Activator Proteins [98]
  2.6 Regulation of Enzyme Activity by Phosphorylation [100]
    2.6.1 Regulation of Glycogen Phosphorylase by Phosphorylation [101]
    2.6.2 Regulation of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (E. coli) by Phosphorylation [103]
  2.7 Regulation of Enzyme Activity by Proteolysis [104]
    2.7.1 Maturation of Proteins via Proteolysis [105]
    2.7.2 Specific Degradation of Proteins in the --ba--Ubiquitin- Proteasome" Pathway [107]
      2.7.2.1 Components of the Ubiquitin System [108]
      2.7.2.2 Degradation in the Proteasome [111]
      2.7.2.3 Recognition of the Substrate in the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Degradation Pathway [112]
      2.7.2.4 Regulatory Function of Ubiquitin Conjugation and the Targeted Degradation of Proteins [113]
Chapter 3 Function and Stucture of Signaling Pathways
  3.1 General Function of Signaling Pathways [119]
  3.2 Structure of Signaling Pathways [121]
    3.2.1 The Principle Mechanisms of Intercellular Communication [121]
    3.2.2 Components of the Intracellular Signal Transduction [123]
  3.3 Extracellular Signaling Molecules [125]
    3.3.1 The Chemical Nature of Hormones [125]
    3.3.2 Hormone Analogs: Agonists and Antagonists [129]
    3.3.3 Endocrine, Paracrine and Autocrine Signaling [129]
    3.3.4 Direct Modification of Protein by Signaling Molecules [132]
  3.4 Hormone Receptors [132]
    3.4.1 Recognition of Hormones by Receptors [132]
    3.4.2 The Interaction between Hormone and Receptor [134]
    3.4.3 Variability of the Receptor and Signal Response in the Target Cell [136]
  3.5 Signal Amplification [137]
  3.6 Regulation of Inter- and Intracellular Signaling [139]
  3.7 Membrane Anchoring and Signal Transduction [141]
    3.7.1 Myristoylation [143]
    3.7.2 Palmitoylation [144]
    3.7.3 Farnesylation and Geranylation [144]
    3.7.4 The Glycosyl-Phosphatidyl-Inositol Anchor (GPI Anchor) [144]
Chapter 4 Signaling by Nuclear Receptors
  4.1 Ligands of Nuclear Receptors [148]
  4.2 Principles of Signaling by Nuclear Receptors [153]
  4.3 Classification and Structure of Nuclear Receptors [155]
    4.3.1 DNA Binding Elements of Nuclear Receptors, HREs [155]
    4.3.2 The DNA Binding Domain of Nuclear Receptors [159]
    4.3.3 HRE Recognition and Structure of the HRE-Receptor Complex [160]
    4.3.4 Ligand Binding Domains [162]
    4.3.5 Trans activating Elements of the Nuclear Receptors [162]
  4.4 The Signaling Pathway of the Steroid Hormone Receptors [163]
    4.4.1 Activation of the Cytoplasmic Apo-Receptor Complexes [163]
    4.4.2 DNA Binding and Transactivation [165]
    4.4.3 Transcription Repression by Steroid Hormone Receptors [166]
    4.4.4 Regulation of the Receptor Activity by Phosphorylation: Crosstalk [166]
  4.5 Signaling by Retinoids, Vitamin D3, and the T3-Hormone [167]
    4.5.1 The Structure of the HREs of RXR-Heterodimers [168]
    4.5.2 Complexity of the Interaction between HRE, Receptor and Hormone [169]
    4.5.3 Ligand Binding, Activation and Corepression of the RXR-Heterodimers [170]
Chapter 5 G-protein Coupled Signal Transmission Pathways
  5.1 Transmembrane Receptors: General Structure and Classification [173]
  5.2 Structural Principles of Transmembrane Receptors [175]
    5.2.2 The Transmembrane Domain [177]
    5.2.3 The Intracellular Domain of Membrane Receptors [179]
    5.2.4 Regulation of Receptor Activity [180]
  5.3 G-protein Coupled Receptors [181]
    5.3.1 Structure of G-Protein Coupled Receptors [181]
    5.3.2 Ligand Binding [183]
    5.3.3 Mechanism of Signal Transmission [183]
    5.3.4 Switching off and Desensitization of G-Protein Coupled Receptors [184]
  5.4 Regulatory GTPases [187]
    5.4.1 The GTPase Superfamily: General Functions and Mechanism [187]
    5.4.2 Inhibition of GTPases by GTP Analogs [189]
    5.4.3 The G-Domain as Common Structural Element of the GTPases [190]
    5.4.4 The Different GTPase Families [191]
  5.5 The Heterotrimeric G-Proteins [192]
    5.5.1 Classification of the Heterotrimeric G-Proteins [192]
    5.5.2 Toxins as Tools in Characterization of Heterotrimeric G-proteins [195]
    5.5.3 The Functional Cycle of Heterotrimeric G-Proteins [196]
    5.5.4 Mechanistic Aspects of the Switch Function of G-Proteins [199]
    5.5.5 Mechanism of GTP Hydrolysis [199]
    5.5.6 Structural Basis of the Activation of the a-Subunit [202]
    5.5.7 Function of the bg-Complex [204]
    5.5.8 Membrane Association of the G-Proteins [205]
    5.5.9 Regulators of G-Proteins: Phosducin and RGS Proteins [205]
  5.6 Effector Molecules of G-Proteins [207]
    5.6.1 Adenylyl Cyclase and cAMP as --ba--Second Messenger [207]
    5.6.2 Phospholipase С [211]
Chapter 6 In trace 11 ular Messenger Substances: "Second Messengers"
  6.1 General Functions of Intracellular Messenger Substances [216]
  6.2 cAMP [217]
  6.3 cGMP [219]
  6.4 Metabolism of Inositol Phospholipids and Inositol Phosphate [220]
  6.5 Inositol 1,4,5-Triphosphate and Release of Ca2+ [223]
    6.5.1 Release of Ca2+ from Ca2+ Storage [225]
    6.5.2 Influx of Ca2+ from the Extracellular Region [227]
    6.5.3 Removal and Storage of Ca2+ [227]
    6.5.4 Temporal and Spatial Changes in Ca2+ Concentration [227]
  6.6 Phosphatidyl Inositol Phosphate and PI3-Kinase [228]
    6.6.1 PI3-Kinases [228]
    6.6.2 The Messenger Substance PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 [231]
    6.6.3 Functions of PtIns(4,5)P2 [232]
  6.7 Ca2+ as a Signal Molecule [232]
    6.7.1 Calmodulin as a Ca2+ Receptor [234]
    6.7.2 Target proteins of Ca2+/Calmodulin [236]
    6.7.3 Other Ca2+ Receptors [236]
  6.8 Diacylglycerol as a Signal Molecule [237]
  6.9 Other Lipid Messengers [237]
  6.10 The NO Signal Molecule [239]
    6.10.1 Reactivity and Stability of NO [239]
    6.10.2 Synthesis of NO [240]
    6.10.3 Physiological Functions and Attack Points of NO [241]
Chapter 7 Ser/Thr-specific Protein Kinases and Protein Phosphatases
  7.1 Classification, Structure and Characteristics of Ser/Thr-specific Protein Kinases [247]
    7.1.1 General Classification and Function of Protein Kinases [247]
    7.1.2 Classification of Ser/Thr-specific Protein Kinases [249]
    7.1.3 Substrate Specificity of Ser/Thr-specific Protein Kinases [250]
    7.1.4 The Catalytic Domain of Ser/Thr-specific Protein Kinases [251]
    7.1.5 Autoinhibition and Intrasteric Regulation of Ser/Thr-specific Protein Kinases [254]
  7.2 Protein Kinase A [256]
    7.2.1 Structure and Substrate Specificity of Protein Kinase A [256]
    7.2.2 Regulation of Protein Kinase A [257]
  7.3 Protein Kinase С [259]
    7.3.1 Characterization and Classification [259]
    7.3.2 Structure and Activation of Protein Kinase С [261]
    7.3.3 Regulation of Activity of Protein Kinase С [263]
    7.3.4 Functions of Protein Kinase С [265]
  7.4 Ca2+/calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinases [266]
    7.4.1 Importance and General Function [266]
    7.4.2 Structure and Autoregulation of CaM Kinase II [267]
  7.5 Ser/Thr-specific Protein Phosphatases [270]
    7.5.1 Structure and Classification of Ser/Thr Protein Phosphatases [270]
    7.5.2 Function and Regulation of Ser/Thr-specific Protein Phosphatases [273]
  7.6 Coordinated Action of Protein Kinases and Protein Phosphatases [274]
    7.6.1 Protein Phosphorylation and Regulation of Glycogen Metabolism [275]
    7.6.2 Protein Phosphatase I and Regulation of Glycogen Metabolism [277]
  7.7 Regulation of Protein Phosphorylation by Specific Localization at Subcellular Structures [279]
  7.8 General Principles of Regulation of Enzymes by Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation [282]
Chapter 8 Signal Transmission via Transmembrane Receptors with Tyrosine-specific Protein Kinase Activity
  8.1 Structure and Function of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases [286]
    8.1.1 General Structure and Classification [288]
    8.1.2 Ligand Binding and Activation [289]
    8.1.3 Structure and Activation of the Tyrosine Kinase Domain [293]
    8.1.4 Effector Proteins of the Receptor Tyrosine Kinases [296]
  8.2 Protein Modules as Coupling Elements of Signal Proteins [298]
    8.2.1 SH2 Domains [299]
      8.2.1.1 Binding Specificity and Structure of SH2 Domains [300]
      8.2.1.2 Function of the SH2 Domain [302]
    8.2.2 Phosphotyrosine Binding Domain, PTB Domain [305]
    8.2.3 SH3 Domains [306]
      8.2.3.1 SH3 Structure and Ligand Binding [306]
      8.2.3.3 Functions of the SH3 Domain [306]
    8.2.4 Pleckstrin Homology Domains [308]
    8.2.5 PDZ Domains [308]
    8.2.6 WW Domains [309]
  8.3 Nonreceptor Tyrosine-specific Protein Kinases [309]
    8.3.1 Structure and General Function of Nonreceptor Tyrosine Kinases [310]
    8.3.2 Src Tyrosine Kinase and Abl Tyrosine Kinase [310]
  8.4 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases [312]
    8.4.1 Structure and Classification of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases [313]
    8.4.2 Cooperation of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases and Protein Tyrosine Kinases [315]
    8.4.3 Regulation of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases [318]
  8.5 Adaptor Molecules of Intracellular Signal Transduction [319]
Chapter 9 Signal Transmission via Ras Proteins
  9.1 General Importance and Classification of Ras Proteins [324]
  9.2 Structure and Biochemical Properties of Ras Protein [327]
    9.2.1 Structure of the GTP- and GDP-bound Forms of Ras Protein [327]
    9.2.2 GTP Hydrolysis: Mechanism and Stimulation by GAP Proteins [328]
    9.2.3 Structure and Biochemical Properties of Transforming Mutants of Ras Protein [333]
  9.3 Membrane Localization of Ras Protein [334]
  9.4 GTPase-activating Protein (GAP) in Ras Signal Transduction [335]
    9.4.1 Structure of Ras-GAP Protein [335]
    9.4.2 Function of Ras-GAP Protein [336]
  9.5 Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs) in Signal Transduction via Ras Proteins [336]
    9.5.1 Importance of GEFs [337]
    9.5.2 Structure and Activation of GEFs [338]
  9.6 Raf Kinase as an Effector of Signal Transduction by Ras Proteins [340]
    9.6.1 Structure of Raf Kinase [340]
    9.6.2 Interaction of Raf Kinase with Ras Protein [341]
    9.6.3 Mechanism of Activation and Regulation of Raf Kinase [342]
  9.7 Reception and Transmission of Multiple Signals by Ras Protein [343]
Chapter 10 Intracellular Signal Transduction: the Protein Cascades of the MAP Kinase Pathways
  10.1 Components of the МАРК Pathway [352]
  10.2 Input Signals and Substrates of the МАРК Pathways!o [354]
  10.3 The JNK Signaling Cascade [356]
Chapter 11 Membrane Receptors with Associated Tyrosine Kinase Activity
  11.1 Cytokines and Cytokine Receptors [358]
    11.1.1 Structure and Function of Cytokine Receptors [359]
    11.1.2 Activation of Cytoplasmic Tyrosine Kinases [362]
    11.1.3 The Jak-Stat Pathway [364]
      11.1.3.1 The Janus Kinases [364]
      11.1.3.2 The Stat Proteins [365]
  11.2 Т and В cell Antigen Receptors [369]
    11.2.1 Receptor Structure [369]
    11.2.2 Intracellular Signal Molecules of the Т and В Cell Antigen Receptors [371]
  11.3 Signal Transduction via Integrins [371]
Chapter 12 Other Receptor Classes
  12.1 Receptors with Intrinsic Ser/Thr Kinase Activity: the TGFb Receptor and the Smad Proteins [377]
    12.1.1 TGFb Receptor [377]
    12.1.2 Smad Proteins [379]
  12.2 Notch: Signaling with Protease Participation [380]
  12.3 Signal Transduction via the Two-component Pathway [380]
Chapter 13 Regulation of the Cell Cycle
  13.1 Overview of the Cell Cycle [385]
    13.1.1 Principles of Cell Cycle Control [386]
    13.1.2 Intrinsic Control Mechanisms [388]
    13.1.3 External Control Mechanisms [388]
    13.1.4 Critical Cell Cycle Events and Cell Cycle Transitions [390]
  13.2 Key elements of the Cell Cycle Apparatus [390]
    13.2.1 Сусlin-dependent Protein Kinases, CDKs [391]
    13.2.2 Activation and Inactivation of CDKs by Phosphorylation [391]
    13.2.3 Cyclins [394]
    13.2.4 Stability of Cyclins [396]
    13.2.5 Structural Basis for CDK Activation [396]
    13.2.6 Inhibitors of CDKs, the CKIs [398]
    13.2.7 Substrates of CDKs [401]
    13.2.8 Multiple Regulation of CDKs [403]
  13.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle by Proteolysis [403]
    13.3.1 Targeted Proteolysis at Gl/S [404]
    13.3.2 Proteolysis during Mitosis: the Anaphase-promoting Complex/ Cyclosome [405]
  13.4 The Gl/S phase Transition [406]
    13.4.1 Function of the D Type Cyclins [406]
    13.4.2 Function of pRb in the Cell Cycle [408]
    13.4.3 Model of pRb Function [409]
  13.5 Cell Cycle Control of DNA Replication [412]
  13.6 The G2/M Transition and Cdc25 Phosphatase [415]
  13.7 The DNA Damage Checkpoint [416]
Chapter 14 Malfunction of Signaling Pathways and Tumorigenesis: Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes
  14.1 General Comments on Tumor Formation [420]
    14.1.1 Characteristics of Tumor Cells [420]
    14.1.2 Genetic Changes in Tumor Cells [420]
    14.1.3 Changes in Methylation Pattern [421]
    14.1.4 Causes of Oncogenic Mutations [421]
    14.1.5 DNA Repair and Tumor Formation [422]
    14.1.6 Cell Division and Tumor Formation [423]
  14.2 Cell Division Activity, Errors in Function of Signal Proteins and Tumor Formation [423]
    14.2.1 The Fate of a Cell: Division, Non-division or Death [424]
    14.2.2 Definition and General Function of Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes [425]
    14.2.3 Cellular Systems for Investigation of the Function of Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes [427]
  14.3 Oncogenes and Proto-oncogenes [428]
    14.3.1 Mechanisms of Activation of Proto-oncogenes [428]
      14.3.1.1 Activation by Structural Changes [428]
      14.3.1.2 Activation by Concentration Increase [430]
    14.3.2 Examples of Functions of Proto-oncogenes and Oncogenes [432]
  14.4 Tumor Suppressor Genes [436]
    14.4.1 General Functions of Tumor Suppressor Genes [436]
    14.4.2 DNA Repair, DNA Integrity and Tumor Suppression [437]
    14.4.3 The Retinoblastoma Protein pRb as a Tumor Suppressor Protein [438]
    14.4.4 The p16ink4a Gene Locus and Tumor Suppression [441]
    14.4.5 The Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 [441]
      14.4.5.1 Structure and Biochemical Properties of the p53 Protein [442]
      14.4.5.2 Sequence-specific DNA Binding of p53 [443]
      14.4.5.3 p53-regulated Genes [445]
      14.4.5.4 Activation, Regulation and Modulation of the Function of p53 [447]
      14.4.5.5 Model of p53 Function [450]
    14.4.6 Other Tumor Suppressor Genes [452]
Chapter 15 Apoptosis
  15.1 Basic Functions of Apoptosis [456]
  15.2 Apoptosis in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans [457]
  15.3 Components of the Apoptotic Program in Mammals [458]
    15.3.1 Caspases: Death by Proteolysis [458]
    15.3.2 The Family of Bcl-2 Proteins [463]
    15.3.3 Cofactors of Caspase Activation [464]
    15.3.4 Intracellular Regulation [465]
  15.4 Stress-medialed Apoptosis: the Cytochrome c/Apafl Pathway [465]
  15.5 Death-receptor-triggered Apoptosis [467]
  15.6 Apoptosis and Cellular Signaling Pathways [469]
Chapter 16 Ion Channels and Signal Transduction
  16.1 Principles of Neuronal Communication [473]
  16.2 Membrane Potential and Electrical Communication [474]
  16.3 Structure and Function of Voltage-gated Ion Channels [476]
    16.3.1 Principles of Regulation of Ion Channels [476]
    16.3.2 Characteristics of Voltage-gated Ion Channels [477]
    16.3.3 Structure of Voltage-gated Ion Channels [478]
    16.3.4 Structural Basis of Ion Channel Function [480]
    16.3.5 Voltage-dependent Activation [480]
    16.3.6 Ion Passage and Pore Walls [482]
    16.3.7 Inactivation of Voltage-gated Ion Channels [482]
  16.4 Ligand-gated Ion Channels [483]
    16.4.1 Neurotransmitters and Mechanisms of Ligand-gated Opening of Ion Channels [483]
    16.4.2 Neuro transmitter-controlled Receptors with Intrinsic Ion Channel Function [486]
      16.4.2.1 The NMDA Receptor [487]
      16.4.2.2 The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor [489]
Subject Index [495]
Формат: djvu
Размер:2273212 байт
Язык:ENG
Рейтинг: 145 Рейтинг
Открыть: