An Introduction to Cybernetics

Автор(ы):Ashby W. Ross
06.10.2007
Год изд.:1957
Издание:6
Описание: The book tells about the application of the method of mathematical cybernetics in biology. It starts from common-place and well-understood concepts, and proceeds, step by step, to show how these concepts can be made exact, and how they can be developed until they lead into such subjects as feedback, stability, regulation, ultrastability, information, coding, noise, and other cybernetic topics. Throughout the book no knowledge of mathematics is required beyond elementary algebra; in particular, the arguments nowhere depend on the calculus. The illustrations and examples are mostly taken from the biological, rather than the physical, sciences. Its overlap with Design for a Brain is small, so that the two books are almost independent. They are, however, intimately related, and are best treated as complementary; each will help to illuminate the other.
Оглавление:
An Introduction to Cybernetics — обложка книги.
  1: WHAT Is NEW [1]
    The peculiarities of cybernetics [1]
    The uses of cybernetics [4]
PARТ ONE: MECHANISM
  2: CHANGE [9]
    Transformation [10]
    Repeated change [16]
  3: THE DETERMINATE MACHINE [24]
    Vectors [30]
  4: THE MACHINE WITH INPUT [42]
    Coupling systems [48]
    Feedback [53]
    Independence within a whole [55]
    The very large system [61]
  5: STABILITY [73]
    Disturbance [77]
    Equilibrium in part and whole [82]
  6: THE BLACK BOX [86]
    Isomorphic machines [94]
    Homomorphic machines [102]
    The very large Box [109]
    The incompletely observable Box [113]
PARТ TWO: VARIETY
  7: QUANTITY OF VARIETY [121]
    Constraint [127]
    Importance of constraint [130]
    Variety in machines [134]
  8: TRANSMISSION OF VARIETY [140]
    Inversion [145]
    Transmission from system to system [151]
    Transmission through a channel [154]
  9: INCESSANT TRANSMISSION [161]
    The Markov chain [165]
    Entropy [174]
    Noise [186]
PARТ THREE: REGULATION AND CONTROL
  10: REGULATION IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS [195]
    Survival [197]
  11: REQUISITE VARIETY [202]
    The law [206]
    Control [213]
    Some variations [216]
  12: THE ERROR-CONTROLLED REGULATOR [219]
    The Markovian machine [225]
    Markovian regulation [231]
    Determinate regulation [235]
    The power amplifier [238]
    Games and strategies [240]
  13: REGULATING THE VERY LARGE SYSTEM [244]
    Repetitive disturbance [247]
    Designing the regulator [251]
    Quantity of selection [255]
    Selection and machinery [259]
  14: AMPLIFYING REGULATION [265]
    What is an amplifier? [265]
    Amplification in the brain [270]
    Amplifying intelligence [271]
REFERENCES [273]
ANSWERS To EXERCISES [274]
INDEX [289]
Формат: djvu
Размер:1709943 байт
Язык:RUS
Рейтинг: 174 Рейтинг
Открыть: