Introduction to space physics

Автор(ы):Kivelson M. G., Russel C. T.
06.10.2007
Год изд.:1995
Описание: ...The ionized gases of the solar-terrestrial environment interact in very complex and sometimes counterintuitive ways. Our intuition about gases is trained in situations in which collisions are important, but in most of the ionized gases in the solar system the magnetic and electric fields control the motion of the particles, with collisions and gravitational fields being less important. In an introductory text such as this it is difficult to decide where to begin to discuss these interactions. One could start with the simplest systems and then add complexity; one could order the material by spatial location, discussing the sun first and then proceeding to follow the energy flow outward past all the planets; or one could follow a chronological approach, according to the order of discovery. There is much to justify a spatial approach, because the sun is the energy source for most of the plasma we encounter, either through coupling with the solar wind or through photoionization. On the other hand, the chronological approach follows the way scientists originally learned about how the solar terrestrial environment behaves. This approach has the advantage that the earliest concepts were simple and grew gradually in complexity, but it has the disadvantage that some of the early ideas were wrong and that sometimes science progresses in convoluted ways...
Оглавление:
Introduction to space physics — обложка книги. Обложка книги.
1 A BRIEF HISTORY OF SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL PHYSICS
С. Т. Russell [1]
  1.1 Ancient Auroral Sightings [1]
  1.2 Early Measurements of the Geomagnetic Field [3]
  1.3 The Emergence of a Scientific Discipline [5]
  1.4 The Ionosphere and Magnetosphere [9]
  1.5 The Solar Wind [13]
  1.6 Magnetospheric Exploration [15]
  1.7 Planetary and Interplanetary Exploration [21]
  1.8 Concluding Remarks [26]
    Additional Reading [26]
    Problems [26]
2 PHYSICS OF SPACE PLASMAS
M. G. Kivelson [27]
  2.1 Introduction [27]
  2.2 Single-Particle Motion [27]
  2.3 Collections of Particles [34]
  2.4 The Plasma State [38]
  2.5 The Fluid Description of a Plasma [41]
  2.6 Two Applications of the MHD Equations [50]
  2.7 Conclusion [53]
  Appendix 2A: Some Properties of Nonrelativistic Charged Particles in Magnetic Fields [53]
    Additional Reading [54]
    Problems [55]
3 THE SUN AND ITS MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS
E. R. Priest [58]
  3.1 Introduction [58]
  3.2 The New Sun [62]
  3.3 The Role of the Magnetic Field [65]
  3.4 MHD Equilibria, Waves, and Instabilities [69]
  3.5 Solar Activity [70]
  3.6 Prominences [74]
  3.7 Coronal Heating [79]
  3.8 Solar Flares [82]
  3.9 Conclusion [88]
    Additional Reading [88]
    Problems [89]
4 THE SOLAR WIND
A. J. Hundhausen [91]
  4.1 Introduction [91]
  4.2 A Quick Survey of Solar-Wind Properties [92]
  4.3 The Basic Concept of Solar-Wind Formation in the Solar Corona [96]
  4.4 The Magnetic Structure of the Corona and Solar Wind [110]
  4.5 The Major Time-Dependent Disturbances of the Solar Wind [124]
    Additional Reading [128]
    Problems [128]
5 COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS
D. Burgess [129]
  5.1 Introduction [129]
  5.2 Shocks without Collisions [134]
  5.3 Shock Structure: How Shocking? [145]
  5.4 Things That Haven't Been Mentioned [155]
  Appendix 5A: The de Hoffman-Teller Frame [156]
  Appendix 5B: Energetic Particles and Foreshocks [158]
  Appendix 5C: Determining the Shock-Normal Direction [161]
    Additional Reading [163]
    Problems [163]
6 SOLAR-WIND INTERACTIONS WITH MAGNETIZED PLANETS
R. J. Walker and С. Т. Russell [164]
  6.1 Introduction [164]
  6.2 Planetary Magnetic Fields [164]
  6.3 Size of the Magnetospheric Cavity [168]
  6.4 Shape of the Magnetospheric Cavity [172]
  6.5 Self-Consistent Models [174]
  6.6 Flow around the Magnetosphere [177]
  6.7 Concluding Remarks [180]
    Additional Reading [181]
    Problems [181]
7 IONOSPHERES
J. G. Luhmann [183]
  7.1 Introduction [183]
  7.2 Ion Production [184]
  7.3 Ion Loss [192]
  7.4 Determining Ionospheric Density from Production and Loss Rates [193]
  7.5 An Example: The Earth's Ionosphere [196]
  7.6 Other Considerations Relating to Ionospheres [199]
  7.7 Final Notes [202]
    Additional Reading [202]
    Problems [202]
8 PLASMA INTERACTIONS WITH UNMAGNETIZED BODIES
J. G. Luhmann [203]
  8.1 Introduction [203]
  8.2 Plasma Interactions with Moonlike Bodies [203]
  8.3 Plasma Interactions with Bodies with Atmospheres [207]
  8.4 Concluding Remarks [224]
    Additional Reading [225]
    Problems [225]
9 THE MAGNETOPAUSE, MAGNETOTAIL, AND MAGNETIC RECONNECTION
W. J. Hughes [227]
  9.1 Introduction [227]
  9.2 The Magnetopause [228]
  9.3 The Geomagnetic Tail [232]
  9.4 Magnetic Reconnection [236]
  9.5 Reconnection at the Magnetopause [259]
  9.6 Reconnection and the Plasma-Sheet Boundary Layer [276]
  9.7 Is Steady-State Convection Possible in the Tail? [283]
  9.8 Conclusion [284]
    Additional Reading [284]
    Problems [285]
10 MAGNETOSPHERIC CONFIGURATION
R. A. Wolf [288]
  10.1 Introduction [288]
  10.2 Magnetic-Field Configuration of the Earth's Magnetosphere [288]
  10.3 Plasma in the Earth's Middle and Inner Magnetosphere [290]
  10.4 Electric Fields and Magnetospheric Convection [300]
  10.5 Adiabatic Invariants and Particle Drifts [304]
  10.6 lonosphere-Magnetosphere Coupling [320]
  10.7 Ionospheric Currents [323]
  10.8 Magnetic-Field-Aligned Potential Drops [324]
  10.9 Loss of Magnetospheric Particles into the Earth's Atmosphere [325]
  10.10 Concluding Comment [327]
    Additional Reading [327]
    Problems [328]
11 PULSATIONS AND MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES
M. G. Kivelson [330]
  11.1 Introduction [330]
  11.2 Basic Equations [332]
  11.3 Equations for Linear Waves [334]
  11.4 Waves in Cold Plasmas [335]
  11.5 Waves in Warm Plasmas [340]
  11.6 Ionospheric Boundary Conditions [343]
  11.7 MHD Waves in a Dipolar Magnetic Field [345]
  11.8 Sources of Wave Energy [349]
  11.9 Instabilities [350]
  11.10 Waves in Planetary Magnetospheres and Elsewhere [352]
    Additional Reading [353]
    Problems [353]
12 PLASMA WAVES
C. K. Goertz and R. J. Strangeway [356]
  12.1 Introduction [356]
  12.2 Waves in a Two-Fluid Plasma [356]
  12.3 Waves in an Unmagnetized Plasma [360]
  12.4 Waves in a Magnetized Plasma [375]
  12.5 Kinetic Theory and Wave Instabilities [392]
    Additional Reading [398]
    Problems [398]
13 MAGNETOSPHERIC DYNAMICS
R. L. McPherron [400]
  13.1 Introduction [400]
  13.2 Types of Magnetic Activity [402]
  13.3 Measures of Magnetic Activity: Geomagnetic Indices [408]
  13.4 Solar-Wind Control of Geomagnetic Activity [410]
  13.5 Magnetospheric Control of Geomagnetic Activity [420]
  13.6 Phenomenological Models of Substorms [430]
  13.7 Conclusions [441]
  Appendix 13A: Instruments for Measuring Magnetic Fields [443]
  Appendix 13B: Standard Indices of Geomagnetic Activity [451]
    Additional Reading [457]
14 THE AURORA AND THE AURORAL IONOSPHERE
H. С Carlson, Jr., and A. Egeland [459]
  14.1 Introduction [459]
  14.2 Auroral-Particle Precipitation: The Auroral Spectrum [463]
  14.3 Auroral Distribution in Space and Time [476]
  14.4 The Auroral Substorm [486]
  14.5 The Auroral Ionosphere [489]
  14.6 Auroral Effects on Radio Waves [493]
  14.7 Energy Transfer to the Ionosphere [494]
  14.8 Relation to Boundaries and Physical Processes in the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere [497]
  14.9 Stable Sun-Aligned Arc: Energetics and Thermal Balance [498]
    Additional Reading [500]
    Problems [500]
15 THE MAGNETOSPHERES OF THE OUTER PLANETS
С. Т. Russell and R. J. Walker [503]
  15.1 Introduction [503]
  15.2 The Variation in the Solar-Wind Properties [504]
  15.3 Magnetospheric Size [507]
  15.4 TheRoleofReconnection [511]
  15.5 Interaction of Moons with their Magnetospheres [512]
  15.6 Radiation Belts [514]
  15.7 Waves and Instabilities [515]
  15.8 Radio Emissions [517]
  15.9 Concluding Remarks [519]
    Additional Reading [519]
    Problems [519]
  Appendix 1: Notation, Vector Identities, and Differential Operators [521]
  Appendix 2: Fundamental Constants and Plasma Parameters of Space Physics [529]
  Appendix 3: Geophysical Coordinate Transformations [531]
References [545]
Index [563]
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