Fusion research. Principles, experiments and technology

Автор(ы):Dolan T. J.
06.10.2007
Год изд.:2000
Описание: An abundant energy supply is necessary for feeding the world's hungry people. Agriculture and industry require great amounts of energy for fertilizers, irrigation, fuels, transportation, and manufacturing. Although technological prosperity cannot assure spiritual health, it can remove some causes of conflict, such as poverty and hunger, and thus alleviate some of the pressures leading to war. When nations prosper, a greater share of their resources can be devoted to solving other crucial problems, like disease. Nuclear fusion reactions are the source of the enormous power radiated by the sun and other stars. The fossil fuels we consume now originally received their energy from sunlight, so fusion is called the ultimate energy source. The purpose of this book is to provide a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research, which will be useful to those entering the field and to those already engaged in fusion research, but specializing in one area. Each topic is simplified and condensed.
Оглавление:
Fusion research. Principles, experiments and technology — обложка книги.
1. Energy Sources
  1A. Forms of Energy [1]
  1B. Energy Demand [1]
  1C. Energy Sources [4]
  1D. Solar Energy [6]
  1E. Fusion Reactions [8]
  1F. Fusion Reactors [10]
  1G. Summary [14]
Problems [14]
Bibliography [15]
2. Nuclear Reactions and Coulomb Collisions
  2A. Distribution Functions and Averages [16]
  2B. Cross Sections and Reaction Rates [19]
  2C. Nuclear Fusion Reaction Rates [26]
  2D. Power Density and Pressure [30]
  2Е. Coulomb Collisions [35]
Problems [46]
Bibliography [48]
3. Atomic Collisions and Radiation
  ЗА. Types of Collisions [49]
  3B. Scattering and Momentum Transfer [51]
  3C. Molecular Collisions [52]
  3D. Atomic Collision Phenomena [55]
  3E. Equilibrium Degree of lonization [60]
  3F. Radiation Losses [62]
Problems [70]
Bibliography [72]
4. Fusion Reactor Power Balance
  4A. Conservation Equations [73]
  4B. Equilibrium and Ignition [75]
  4C. Energy Cycle [79]
  4D. Required Values of (?) [85]
  4E. Mirror Reactors [89]
  4F. Beam-driven Toroidal Reactors [91]
  4G. Non-uniform and Time-varying Plasmas [93]
  4H. Comparison of Reactor Types [96]
Problems [98]
Bibliography [100]
5. Plasma Fundamentals
  5A. Introduction [101]
  5B. Electromagnetic Fields and Forces [104]
  5C. Kinetic Theory [109]
  5D. Fluid Equations [110]
  5E. Plasma Waves [121]
  5F. Debye Shielding and Plasma Sheaths [130]
  5G. Quasi neutrality [133]
  5H. Computer Methods [134]
Problems [137]
Bibliography [138]
6. Gas Discharges and Breakdown
  6A. Background [140]
  6B. Townsend Discharges [140]
  6C. Simplified Breakdown Condition [143]
  6D. Other Phenomena Influencing Breakdown [145]
  6E. Glow and Arc Discharges [146]
  6F. Space Charge Limitation of Current [147]
Problems [149]
Bibliography [150]
7. Charged Particle Trajectories
  7A. Guiding Center Approximation [151]
  7B. Diamagnetism [154]
  7C. Drift Velocities [154]
  7D. Adiabatic Invariants and Magnetic Mirrors [158]
  7E. Particle Orbits in Tokamaks [161]
Problems [166]
Bibliography [167]
8. Plasma Confinement
  8A. Introduction [168]
  8B. Magnetic Confinement [171]
  8C. Ax i symmetric Toroidal Equilibrium [175]
  8D. MHD Instabilities [179]
  8Е. Microinstabilities [197]
  8F. Transport [204]
  8G. Confinement Times [210]
Problems [213]
Bibliography [215]
9. Plasma Heating
  9A. Methods [217]
  9B. Ohmic Heating [217]
  9C. Compression [219]
  9D. Charged Particle Injection [222]
  9E. Neutral Beam Injection [223]
  9F. Wave Heating [229]
Problems [233]
Bibliography [234]
10. Plasma Diagnostics
  10A. Introduction [237]
  10B. Electrical Probes [238]
  1OC. Magnetic Flux Measurements [240]
  10D. Passive Particle Diagnostics [241]
  10E. Active Particle Diagnostics [245]
  10F. Passive Wave Diagnostics [247]
  10G. Active Wave Diagnostics [253]
  10H. TFTR Diagnostics [264]
  10J. Summary [267]
Problems [269]
Bibliography [270]
EXPERIMENTS
11. Mirrors and Cusps
  11A. Coil Geometries [273]
  11B. Mirror Loss Boundaries [277]
  11C. Instabilities [278]
  11D. 2X11B Experiment [281]
  11E. Tandem Mirrors [283]
  11F. Field Reversed Mirrors [296]
  11G. Multiple Mirrors [300]
  11Н. Rotating Plasmas [302]
  11J. Cusps [303]
Bibliography [307]
12. Pinches and Compact Toroids
  12A. Types of Pinches [311]
  12B. Field-Reversed Theta Pinch [323]
  12C. Spheromak [329]
  12D. Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) [336]
  12E. Pitch-Reversed Helical Pinch [341]
  12F. Topolotron [345]
Bibliography [347]
13. Tokamaks
  13A. MHD Stability [350]
  13B. Transport [362]
  13C. Heating [372]
  13D. Current Drive [377]
  13E. Runaway Electrons [382]
  13F. Scaling [386]
Bibliography [389]
14. Other Toroidal Devices
  14A. Stellarators and Torsatrons [393]
  14B. Internal Rings [406]
  14C. Electron and Ion Rings [411]
  14D. Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) [414]
  14E. Electric Field Bumpy Torus [437]
Bibliography [437]
15. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF)
  15A. Introduction [441]
  15B. Energy Gain [444]
  15C. Laser-Plasma Interactions [450]
  15D. Compression [460]
  15Е. Targets [465]
  15F. Diagnostics [473]
Bibliography [479]
16. ICF Drivers and Chambers
  16A. Glass Lasers [482]
  16B. (?) Lasers [487]
  16C. Rare Gas Halide Lasers [489]
  16D. Other Lasers [493]
  16E. Electron Beams [496]
  16F. Light Ion Beams [501]
  16G. Heavy Ion Beams [506]
  16H. Chambers [515]
Bibliography [522]
17. Other Fusion Concepts
  17A. Radio-frequency Confinement [524]
  17B. Radiofrequency Plugging [527]
  17C. Electrostatic Confinement [531]
  17D. Electrostatic Plugging [533]
  17E. Wall Confinement [537]
  17F. Imploding Liner [539]
  17G. Colliding-beam Mirror [541]
  17H. Hypervelocity Impact [543]
Bibliography [546]
18. Fusion Engineering Problems
  18A. Problem Areas [550]
  18B. Maintenance [554]
  18С. A Tokamak Reactor Design [557]
  18D. A Mirror Reactor Design [565]
Bibliography [571]
19. Vacuum Systems
  19A. Background [572]
  19B. Viscous and Molecular Flow [574]
  19C. Pumps [580]
  19D. Pressure Gages [585]
  19E. Chambers and Components [589]
  19F. Techniques [591]
Problems [594]
Bibliography [595]
20. Water-Cooled Magnets
  20A. Background [596]
  20B. Magnetic Field Calculations [597]
  20С. Coil Forces [608]
  20D. Power and Cooling Water Requirements [612]
  20E. Coil Windings [615]
Problems [617]
Bibliography [619]
21. Pulsed Magnet Systems
  21A. Introduction [620]
  21B. RLC Circuit Equations [620]
  21C. Distribution of (?) and (?) [624]
  21D. Energy Storage Systems [626]
  21E. Switching and Transmission [629]
  21F. Magnetic Flux Compression [631]
  21G. Component Reliability [632]
Problems [634]
Bibliography [635]
22. Superconducting Magnets
  22A. Superconductivity [636]
  22B. Superconductors [642]
  22C. Stabilization [645]
  22D. Coil Protection [648]
  22E. Coil Design Considerations [650]
  22F. Large Coils [653]
  22G. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage [656]
Problems [658]
Bibliography [659]
23. Cryogenics
  23A. Introduction [662]
  23B. Properties of Materials at Low Temperatures [663]
  23C. Refrigeration and Liquefaction [668]
  23D. Insulation [670]
  23E. Cryostat Design [672]
  23F. Cryogenic Systems [673]
Problems [676]
Bibliography [677]
24. Materials Problems
  24A. Introduction [678]
  24B. Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies [678]
  24C. Analysis and Evaluation [682]
  24D. Mechanical Behavior [687]
  24E. In-Reactor Deformation [694]
  24F. Hydrogen Recycling [696]
  24G. Impurity Introduction [700]
  24H. Near-Surface Wall Modifications [710]
  24J. Special Purpose Materials [711]
Problems [717]
Bibliography [718]
25. Plasma Purity and Fueling
  25A. Impurities [722]
  25B. Divertors [727]
  25C. Neutral Gas Blankets [734]
  25D. Other Impurity Control Techniques [736]
  25E. Fueling [738]
Problems [743]
Bibliography [745]
26. Blankets
  26A. Introduction [747]
  26B. Blanket Materials [751]
  26C. Heat Transfer Processes [755]
  26D. Coolant Tube Stresses [760]
  26E. Coolant Flow Rate and Pumping Power [762]
  26F. Blanket Designs [765]
  26G. Direct Energy Conversion [770]
  26H. Fuel Production [773]
Problems [774]
Bibliography [775]
27. Neutronics
  27A. Introduction [777]
  27B. Transport Theory [778]
  27C. The Monte Carlo Method [783]
  27D. Blanket and Shield Designs [791]
Problems [798]
Bibliography [799]
28. Environment and Economics
  28A. Introduction [801]
  28B. Tritium [802]
  28C. Other Radioisotopes [811]
  28D. Hazards and Materials Snortages [818]
  28E. Economics [821]
Problems [827]
Bibliography [828]
29. Fusion-Fission Hybrids
  29A. Need [830]
  29B. Blanket Design [832]
  29C. Tokamak Hybrids [835]
  29D. Mirror Hybrids [840]
  29E. Catalyzed DO Hybrids [844]
Bibliography [847]
30. The Future
  30A. Experimental Progress [848]
  ЗОВ. Remarks [849]
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