Diffusion of innovations

Автор(ы):Rogers Everett M.
06.10.2007
Год изд.:1983
Издание:3
Описание: The present book is cast in a theoretical framework involving the concepts of information and uncertainty. Information about innovations is often sought from near-peers, especially information about their subjective evaluations of the innovation. This information exchange about a new idea occurs through a convergence process involving interpersonal networks. The diffusion of innovations, thus, is essentially a social process in which subjectively perceived information about a new idea is communicated.
Оглавление:
Diffusion of innovations — обложка книги.
List of Case Illustrations [xiii]
Preface
Chapter 1 ELEMENTS OF DIFFUSION [1]
  WHAT IS DIFFUSION? [5]
  FOUR MAIN ELEMENTS IN THE DIFFUSION
  OF INNOVATIONS [10]
    1. The Innovation [11]
    2. Communication Channels [17]
    3. Time [20]
    4. A Social System [24]
  SUMMARY [34]
Chapter 2 A HISTORY OF DIFFUSION RESEARCH [38]
  THE BEGINNINGS OF DIFFUSION RESEARCH IN EUROPE [40]
    Gabriel Tardeand The laws of Imitation [40]
  The British and German-Austrian Diffusionists [41]
  THE RISE OF DIFFUSION RESEARCH TRADITIONS [42]
    Paradigms and Invisible Colleges [43]
    The Anthropology Research Tradition [46]
    Early Sociology [50]
    Rural Sociology [57]
    Education [62]
    Public Health and Medical Sociology [65]
    Communication [72]
    Marketing [74]
    Geography [77]
    General Sociology [78]
  A TYPOLOGY OF DIFFUSION RESEARCH [79]
  SUMMARY [85]
Chapter 3 CONTRIBUTIONS AND CRITICISMS OF DIFFUSION RESEARCH [87]
  THE CONTRIBUTIONS AND STATUS OF DIFFUSION RESEARCH TODAY. CRITICISMS OF DIFFUSION RESEARCH [91]
    The Pro-Innovation Bias ofDiffusion Research [92]
    The Individual-Blame Bias in Diffusion Research [103]
    The Recall Problem in Diffusion Research [112]
    The Issue of Equality in the Diffusion of Innovations [113]
  GENERALIZING ABOUT DIFFUSION VIA МЕТА-RESEARCH [126]
    Relating Theory and Research at the Middle Range [128]
    The Oversimplification of Two-Concept Generalizations [130]
    The Reliability ofDiffusion Generalizations [131]
  SUMMARY [133]
Chapter 4 THE GENERATION OF INNOVATIONS [134]
  THE INNOVATION-DEVELOPMENT PROCESS [135]
    1. Recognizing a Problem or Need [135]
    2. Basic and Applied Research [138]
    3. Development [139]
    4. Commercialization [143]
    5. Diffusion and Adoption [144]
    6. Consequences [149]
  SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, EQUALITY, AND INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT [153]
  TRACING THE INNOVATION-DEVELOPMENT PROCESS [155]
    Shortcomings ofthe Tracer Studies [157]
    Questions for Future Research [157]
  CONVERTING RESEARCH INTO PRACTICE [158]
    The Agricultural Extension Model [159]
    Decentralized Diffusion Systems [160]
  SUMMARY [161]
Chapter 5 THE INNOVATION-DECISION PROCESS [163]
  A MODEL OF THE INNOVATION-DECISION PROCESS [163]
  KNOWLEDGE STAGE [164]
    Which Comes First, Needs or Awareness of an Innovation ? [164]
    Types ofKnowledge about an Innovation [167]
    Early Versus Late Knowers oflnnovations [168]
  PERSUASION STAGE [169]
  DECISION STAGE [172]
  IMPLEMENTATION STAGE [174]
    The End of Implementation [175]
    Re-Invention [175]
  CONFIRMATION STAGE [184]
    Dissonance [185]
    Discontinuance [186]
  ARE THERE STAGES IN THE PROCESS? [191]
    Evidence ofthe Stages [192]
    Variance andProcess Research [194]
  COMMUNICATION CHANNELS BY STAGES
  IN THE INNOVATION-DECISION PROCESS [197]
    Categorizing Communication Channels [197]
    Mass Media Versus Interpersonal Channels [198]
    Cosmopolite Versus Localite Channels [200]
  COMMUNICATION CHANNELS BY ADOPTER
  CATEGORIES [201]
  THE INNOVATION-DECISION PERIOD [202]
    Rate of Awareness-Knowledge and Rate of Adoption. [202]
    Length ofthe Period by Adopter Category [203]
  SUMMARY [206]
Chapter 6 ATTRIBUTES OF INNOVATIONS AND THEIR RATE OF ADOPTION [210]
  ATTRIBUTES OF INNOVATIONS [211]
  RELATIVE ADVANTAGE [213]
    Economic factors and Rate of Adoption [214]
    Status Aspects oflnnovations [215]
    Relative Advantage and Rate of Adoption [217]
    Effects of Incentives [279]
  COMPATIBILITY [223]
    Compatibility with Values andBeliefs [223]
    Compatibility with Previously Introduced Ideas [224]
    Compatibility with Needs [225]
    Compatibility and Rate of Adoption [226]
    Technology Clusters [226]
    Naming an Innovation [227]
    Positioning an Innovation [228]
  COMPLEXITY [230]
  TRIAL ABILITY [231]
  OBSERVABILITY [232]
  EXPLAINING RATE OF ADOPTION [232]
  THE DIFFUSION EFFECT [234]
  OVERADOPTION [236]
  SUMMARY [238]
Chapter 7 INNOVATIVENESS AND ADOPTER
  CATEGORIES [241]
  CLASSIFYING ADOPTER CATEGORIES ON THE BASIS OF INNOVATIVENESS [242]
    The S-Curve of Adoption and Normality [243]
    The Method ofAdopter Categorization [245]
  ADOPTER CATEGORIES AS IDEAL TYPES [247]
    Innovators: Venturesome [248]
    Early Adopters: Respectable [248]
    Early Majority: Deliberate [249]
    Late Majority: Skeptical [249]
    Laggards: Traditional [250]
  CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOPTER CATEGORIES [251]
    Socioeconomic Characteristics [251]
    Personality Variables [257]
    Communication Behavior [258]
    A Summary of the Characteristics of Adopter Categories [259]
    The Innovativeness-Needs Paradox [263]
  PREDICTING INNOVATIVENESS WITH MULTIPLE CORRELATION TECHNIQUES [265]
  COMPUTER SIMULATION OF INNOVATION DIFFUSION [267]
  SUMMARY [268]
Chapter 8 OPINION LEADERSHIP AND DIFFUSION NETWORKS [271]
  MODELS OF MASS-COMMUNICATION FLOWS [272]
    Hypodermic Needle Model [272]
    The Two-Step Flow Model [272]
  HOMOPHILY-HETEROPHILY AND THE FLOW OF COMMUNICATION [274]
    Homophily-Heterophily [274]
    Homophily as a Barrier to Diffusion [275]
  MEASURING OPINION LEADERSHIP AND NETWORK LINKS [277]
  CHARACTERISTICS OF OPINION LEADERS [281]
    External Communication [282]
    Accessibility [282]
    Socioeconomic Status [282]
    Innovativeness [284]
    Innovativeness, Opinion Leadership, and System Norms [284]
  MONOMORPHIC AND POLYMORPHIC OPINION LEADERSHIP [288]
  DIFFUSION NETWORKS [293]
    Communication Network Analysis [294]
    The-Strength-of- Weak-Ties [295]
    Who Is Linked to Whom in Networks? [299]
  SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY [304]
    Contrasting Social Learning andDiffusion [305]
    Horizons for Social Modeling [307]
  SUMMARY [307]
Chapter 9 THE CHANGE AGENT [312]
  CHANGE AGENTS AS LINKERS [313]
  THE SEQUENCE OF CHANGE AGENT ROLES [315]
  FACTORS IN CHANGE AGENT SUCCESS [317]
    Change Agent Effort [317]
    Change Agency Versus Client Orientation [318]
    Compatibility with Clients' Needs [319]
    Change Agent Empathy [327]
  HOMOPHILY AND CHANGE AGENT CONTACT [321]
    Change Agent Contact with Lower-Status Clients [323]
    Paraprofessional Aides [325]
    Change Agent Credibility [328]
    InauthenlicProfessionalization of Aides [331]
  OPINION LEADERS [331]
  CLIENTS' EVALUATIVE ABILITY [332]
  CENTRALIZED AND DECENTRALIZED DIFFUSION SYSTEMS [333]
    The Classical Diffusion Model [333]
    Comparing Centralized Versus Decentralized Diffusion Systems [334]
    Advantages and Disadvantages of Decentralized Diffusion [337]
  SUMMARY [343]
Chapter 10 INNOVATION IN ORGANIZATIONS [347]
  ORGANIZATIONS [348]
  ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATIVENESS [355]
    Shortcomings of Organizational Innovativeness Studies [356]
    Size and Organizational Innovativeness [358]
    Structural Characteristics and Organizational Innovativeness [359]
  STAGES IN THE INNOVATION PROCESS IN ORGANIZATIONS [361]
    A Model ofthe Innovation Process in Organizations [362]
    Time Sequence ofthe Stages in the Innovation Process [365]
  SUMMARY [370]
Chapter 11 CONSEQUENCES OF INNOVATIONS [371]
  A MODEL FOR STUDYING CONSEQUENCES [375]
  WHY HAVEN'T CONSEQUENCES BEEN STUDIED MORE? [375]
  CLASSIFICATIONS OF CONSEQUENCES [379]
    Desirable Versus Undesirable Consequences [380]
    Direct Versus Indirect Consequences [384]
    Anticipated Versus Unanticipated Consequences [387]
  EQUALITY IN THE CONSEQUENCES OF INNOVATIONS [391]
    The Issue ofEquality in Development Programs [392]
    The Communication Effects Gap and the Consequences ofDiffusion [394]
    Gap-Widening Consequences of the Adoption of Innovations [398]
    Social Structure and the Equality of Consequences [407]
    Strategies for Narrowing Gaps [403]
    Wider Gaps Are Not Inevitable [408]
  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS [410]
Bibliography [414]
Name Index [441]
Subject Index [447]
Формат: djvu
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Язык:ENG
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