High-Productivity Horizontal Gravel Packs

Год изд.:2001
Описание: Loose formation grains and fine particles such as clays may be produced along with oil, gas and water from unconsolidated reservoirs. Installing completions to control sand without sacrificing productivity, flow control or recoverable reserves is challenging and expensive — as much as $3 million or more offshore. Costs of subsequent treatments to mitigate damage and future remedial interventions also are extremely high—up to $1 million per job in deepwater and subsea wells. Operators need reliable sand-contro measures, implemented correctly the first time, especially for horizontal, openhole wells in high-permeability formations. Sand production, or sanding, is a function of rock strength, in-situ stresses, produced fluids and changes in flow rate related to pressure drop, or drawdown. High production rates, increasing effective stress due to depletion, and water breakthrough contribute to sanding. Каталог горизонтальных гравийных фильтров. Содержит много наглядных иллюстраций.
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Формат: djvu
Размер:1227445 байт
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